Sample Business Plan Income Statement

Sections of an Income Statement and Examples

Since this item is not certain, it is regarded as a departure from the normal course of business. Examples include income or charges arising from discontinued operations, business restructuring or some nonrecurring activity. Many companies resort to several tax avoidance schemes, and this makes a profit after tax less reliable when reviewing a company’s performance. Since tax assessed on a company’s profit is not always based on a straight-line function, analysts prefer to use this item instead of profit after tax. The multi-step approach or the single-step approach is acceptable for use when preparing the income statement. The income statement can be prepared using either of these two known methods. The Income Statement approach is an approach by which the company estimates an allowance for uncollectible receivables as a percentage of the time period’s sales.

Sections of an Income Statement and Examples

To assess a company’s future earnings, it is helpful to separate those prior years’ items of income and expense that are likely to continue in the future from those items that are less likely to continue. The general principles of expense recognition include a process to match expenses either to revenue or to the time period in which the expenditure occurs or to the time period of expected benefits of the expenditures .


Income statements include revenue, costs of goods sold, andoperating expenses, along with the resulting net income or loss for that period. It’s management’s opportunity to tell investors what the financial statements show and do not show, as well as important trends and risks that have shaped the past or are reasonably likely to shape the company’s future.

The next step is to determine gross profit for the reporting period. To calculate this, simply subtract the cost of goods sold from revenue. Vertical analysis refers to the method of financial analysis where each line item is listed as a percentage of a base figure within the statement.

  • A balance sheet shows you how much you have , how much you owe , and how much is remains .
  • Is considered the company’s future earnings indicator and hence closely monitored by financial analysts.
  • Developing a better understanding of your practice finances can give you the tools to set your own course to success and make well-informed decisions that benefit both you and the clients you serve.
  • It is usually presented as sales minus sales discounts, returns, and allowances.
  • As a result, James, as with every month, sits down to perform income statement analysis.
  • Balance sheets are snapshot summaries of a company’s assets, debts, and equities.

Double-entry bookkeeping involves making two separate entries for every business transaction recorded. One of these entries appears on the income statement and the other appears on the balance sheet. Using a balance sheet template will streamline the next step of the process, so that you don’t have to manually insert all of the fields yourself. This is a vital step towards understanding the core strength of a company, and to assess the business performance.


Your reporting period is the specific timeframe the income statement covers. Non-operating items are reported separately from operating items on the income statement. Under both IFRS and US GAAP, the income statement reports separately the effect of the disposal of a component operation as a “discontinued” operation. The presentation of comprehensive income has become a standard feature in an income statement. This item shows the impact on the net income by such entries as unrealized losses or gains attached to investments and adjustments for pension liability. It also shows possible gains and losses incurred with respect to foreign currency translations. The profit before tax line item is the gross profit minus all operating expenses.

Within the manufacturing costs of $10/bag, you have to purchase the materials ($5 in raw materials), pay someone to make the bag ($4 in direct labor), and make the bags within a warehouse ($1 in overhead). All of these costs get summed together and stated on the income statement under Cost of Goods Sold . Going back to the bread distributor example above, each loaf of bread you sold has a cost attached to Sections of an Income Statement and Examples it for how much you purchased it for from your manufacturer. Take $5/loaf and multiply it by the total amount of bread you purchased from the manufacturer, and that is the balance that is included within your Expenses section of the income statement. Note that the revenue line is at the top of the income statement because it essentially drives the costs and the gain/losses incurred throughout the year.

Operating Expenses Gives Operating IncomeOperating Income, also known as EBIT or Recurring Profit, is an important yardstick of profit measurement and reflects the operating performance of the business. It doesn’t take into consideration non-operating gains or losses suffered by businesses, the impact of financial leverage, and tax factors. It is calculated as the difference between Gross Profit and Operating Expenses of the business.

  • This will be reflected automatically by a lower ending livestock inventory value.
  • Some of these expenses may be written off on a tax return if they meet the IRS guidelines.
  • Accountants use some judgement when organizing these items, using breakdowns that most naturally reflects how the business works.
  • Net income is the most important metric used by financial analysts to know the profitability of a business entity.
  • Revenues include the amount earned for the goods sold or the services rendered during the specific accounting period.
  • It may be tempting to focus on “the bottom line”—the amount of net income—but there’s useful information throughout the entire income statement, from top to bottom.
  • As stated earlier, the main purpose of an income statement is to reveal the operational performance of a business entity.

Examples of other revenue at IU include parking citations, matching fund revenue and collections on bad accounts. For instance, if the interest expense is too high and is eating into the profits of Teddy’s Toy Shop, then the company would want to shift the location of the shop to an area with cheaper rent. Firstly, shareholders would be interested in knowing what the net profits of the company are for that year, as the dividends that they could receive are dependent on that. Finance costs – costs of borrowing from various creditors (e.g., interest expenses, bank charges). To illustrate, assume a company had purchased equipment 8 years ago at a cost of $70,000 and its accumulated depreciation on the date of the sale was $55,000. The combination or net of these two amounts is $15,000, which is known as the equipment’s book value or carrying value. Below we will discuss each section of the income statement starting with the heading.

Company B Income Statement

For example, selling machinery for an amount of cash that is higher than the book value of machinery. For example, a doctor derives operating revenue by providing medical treatment whereas a manufacturer of furniture generates operating revenue through sales of such furniture. Here’s a sample income statement of company ABC for the year ending 31st December 2020 and 31st December 2021. Find out what an income statement is, what are its purposes, and power up your business with an income statement template from QuickBooks. While these statements provide different insights, they are both used by investors and lenders to make decisions about your business. Accurate records of expenses, revenues, and credits are required for tax purposes and help keep you in compliance with tax regulations.

  • The income statement, also called theprofit and loss statement, is a report that shows the income, expenses, and resulting profits or losses of a company during a specific time period.
  • It adds up your total revenue then subtracts your total expenses to get your net income.
  • Losses are reductions in net assets caused by incidental transactions.
  • It does not include any indirect costs like selling and distribution, etc.
  • It also provides a company with valuable information about revenue, sales, and expenses.
  • This number can then be used to calculate the gross profit margin by dividing it by net sales.
  • It provides a summary of revenues, costs, and expenses incurred by your business during a specific accounting period.

For example, one responsibility of James is monitoring the income statements of the company. As a result, James, as with every month, sits down to perform income statement analysis. Although the income statement represents a particular period of time, most income statements will also include data from the previous year to facilitate comparison and see how your practice is doing over time. The amount of income tax you have paid, or expect to pay, for you practice is listed for the reporting period covered by the income statement. While there are different types of income statements, they all include the key information listed above. Below is asample income statement provided by SCORE, the nonprofit small business mentoring group.

Calculate Net Income

Rebekiah has taught college accounting and has a master’s in both management and business. Each of the three main elements of the income statement is described below. This document/information does not constitute, and should not be considered a substitute for, legal or financial advice. Each financial situation is different, the advice provided is intended to be general. Please contact your financial or legal advisors for information specific to your situation. If net income is negative, that means you’re operating at a loss—you’re spending more than you’re bringing in.

Sections of an Income Statement and Examples

These often require management’s most difficult, subjective or complex judgments. When you subtract the returns and allowances from the gross revenues, you arrive at the company’s net revenues. It’s called “net” because, if you can imagine a net, these revenues are left in the net after the deductions for returns and allowances have come out. Labor — direct labor is the cost of labor to convert raw materials into finished products. Indirect labor includes other factory personnel such as shipping personnel or maintenance workers. If the application of a uniform margin is inappropriate, product classes could be developed based on gross margins. The calculations shown above would then be done for each product category and totaled.

In general, it is the amount left over after all expenses have been subtracted from cumulative revenue streams. Net position is typically looked at on a historical and comparative basis by comparing numerous fiscal years to one another.

Balance Sheet Vs Income Statement: The Key Differences

During the year, KMR replaced its cappuccino machine, selling the old one, which was fully depreciated, for a gain. For quality purposes, no finished goods inventory—baked cupcakes or brewed coffee—is held overnight.

Sections of an Income Statement and Examples

Of these three, the income statement is often considered to be the most important tool for communicating and measuring the success of the business. An Income Statement is one of the fundamental financial statements that help determine your business’s ability to generate profits within a given accounting period. It helps the users of this financial statement to understand how revenues generated from sales were transformed into Net Income or Net Loss. A common size income statement is an income statement in which each line item is represented as a percentage of sales or revenues generated by your business. Such an income statement helps to understand and compare the financial performance of the business entity over different accounting periods. A single-step income statement is one of the formats for profit & loss statements that involves just one step to determine the net income of your business.

Cost Of Goods Sold

Pre-tax income is the amount of money earned after all the operating expenses as well as interest and depreciation have been subtracted from the revenues of your business but before reducing income tax. Non-operating expenses are the expenses that are incurred by your business but are not related to your core business operations. Examples of non-operating expenses include loss on the sale of fixed assets .

Since the income statement shows financial activity over a given fiscal period, internal management and external users can use this information to compare one fiscal period to the next. In order to truly recognize patterns and trends, users are encouraged to review multiple fiscal years from the Controller’s Office Reporting Tools. The managers and the board of directors also use the income statement to assess the entire business and make decisions about how to operate it daily. It is used as a management tool as it helps them decide whether to discontinue a business segment, to buy certain materials, to lease or rent certain machines for production. For service-related businesses, costs of sales represents the total cost of your service (i.e. for most accountants, doctors and lawyers, their billable hour costs). After revision to IAS 1 in 2003, the Standard is now using profit or loss for the year rather than net profit or loss or net income as the descriptive term for the bottom line of the income statement. Income tax expense – sum of the amount of tax payable to tax authorities in the current reporting period (current tax liabilities/ tax payable) and the amount of deferred tax liabilities .

On the other hand, the Income Statement is used by such stakeholders to see if the company is making enough profits to pay off its debts. Likewise, non-operating income is the income not earned from core business activity. For example, profit on the sale of investments, gain on the sale of fixed assets, etc. Business entities typically show interest expense and interest income as a special line item in the income statement. This is typically undertaken to show earnings before interest and tax and earnings before tax.

Typical periods of time are a year, year-to-date, three months, one month, 52 weeks, 13 weeks, 4 or 5 weeks, and others. Use one of our templates to list the sales, expenses, and other gains or losses in the correct format. At the bottom of the statement, compute the net income for the company. As you can see, this example income statement is a single-step statement because it only lists expenses in one main category. Although this statement might not be extremely useful for investors looking for detailed information, it does accurately calculate the net income for the year. In both income statement formats, revenues are always presented before expenses.

Expenses and losses are the costs incurred by your business in order to run its normal business operations and generate profits. Expenses are also categorized into operating and non-operating expenses. A balance sheet is used by the management to understand if your business has enough liquidity to meet its financial obligations. Thus, the users of the balance sheet like investors and creditors get a fair idea of how effectively the management of the company uses its assets.

In the first article, we examined the balance sheet as a snapshot of your assets, liabilities and equity at a particular point in time. This article takes a look at the income statement, a financial report that details the money your practice earns, the expenses it incurs and the resulting profit or loss over a period of time. A multi-step income statement also provides intermediary subtotals within each section. For example, the operating activities section typically includes subtotals, such as cost of goods sold and gross profit.

At the top of the income statement is the total amount of money brought in from sales of products or services. It’s called “gross” because expenses have not been deducted from it yet.

Income Statement Examples

We’re here to take the guesswork out of running your own business—for good. Your bookkeeping team imports bank statements, categorizes transactions, and prepares financial statements every month. Depreciation is the process of deducting the total cost of something expensive purchased for your business. However, instead of doing it all in one tax year, you write off parts of it over time. When you depreciate assets, you can plan how much money is written off each year, giving you more control over your finances.

The Difference Between An Income Statement And Balance Sheet

Management, investors, shareholders, financiers, government, and regulatory agencies rely on financial reports for decision-making. The last line of the income statement tells you how much of a profit or loss your business has during the time period. If the number is positive, the last line should read net income or net profit. Common size income statements include an additional column of data summarizing each line item as a percentage of your total revenue. Small businesses typically start producing income statements when a bank or investor wants to review the financial performance of their business to see how profitable they are. Competitors may also use them to gain insights about the success parameters of a company and focus areas as increasing R&D spends.

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